Everyday Risks in Dominican Republic

By Doyice Cotten

Tourism in third world countries is always interesting and exciting, but it does come with some risks. I took my camera on my visit to the small town of Juan Dolio, D.R. The risks that I depict here are similar to those in most any Caribbean or Central American country. They just emphasize the point that it is more important that you be alert to risk when out of the U.S.

Photos 1,

Active Risk Management at Dominican Republic Resort

By Doyice Cotten

Usually I write about travel hazards and failures in risk management. This time, I am writing about some of the risk management efforts I saw at Coral Costa Caribe Resort in the Dominican Republic. I usually have my camera ready for hazards, but in this case the resort efforts stood out.

Photos 1, 2, and 3 show some risk management at the beach. A dangerous area is identified by red flags on shore in Photo 1 and at a rocky area in Photo 2.

China Hazards: On the Streets of Tourist Areas

By Doyice Cotten

Foreign tourism is filled with hazards to safety, most important of which are 1) transportation accidents and 2) trip & falls when the tourist is seeing the sights and not looking where they are stepping. This risk is bad enough even when streets and sidewalks are hazard free. This is evidenced by a recent fall in Beijing by my wife, Mary. We were walking down the street and she tripped for no apparent reason, fell,

Risk in Laos and Cambodia

By Doyice Cotten

Things are different in third world countries. Whether one is a tourist or a resident, one encounters risks every day that are not faced in the United States.

First, we will look at a few risks that we as tourists encountered on a recent visit.  Ancient temples abound in both countries. Many of these temples and tourist sites involve climbing steps; often steep steps and usually with no handrails. See Photo 1 for an example.

Hotel Risk Management in India

The tourism industry in the United States is replete with hazards and risks – particularly when one is not in an upscale property. Hoteliers in the U.S. spend a lot of money eliminating hazards in an effort to reduce the risk of injury and lawsuits. In India, we found that the more upscale hotels have much in common with the upscale hotels here. These hotels are very secure. Most are fenced, have security personnel on the property at all times,

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


1.10 The Legal System Gil B. Fried 2

1.20 Legal Research Anita M. Moorman 12

1.30 Business Structure & Legal Authority John T. Wolohan 25


2.10 Negligence Theory 36

2.11 Elements of Negligence Betty van der Smissen 36

2.12 Which Parties Are Liable? Doyice J. Cotten 46

2.20 Defenses 58

2.21 Defenses Against Negligence Doyice J.